"Doctor in Medicina" diploma given to a Turk from Izmir in 1847 by the University of Pisa
During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, some Ottomans studied medicine and pharmacy in European universities receiving diplomas in these sciences. Among these universities were the medical faculties of the universities of Paris, Vienna and Pisa. The present paper aims to present the "Doctor of Medicina" diploma awarded to a Turk from Izmir. The diploma, found in the T. Baytop collection, was granted in 1843 to Ismail Effendi from Izmir. The diploma is 52x32 cm handwritten on a parchment in black ink and golden gilt. The text on the diploma, which is in Latin, includes information on the names of the examination committee, date of the examination (9 november 1843) and also a statement enunciating that the candidate was granted the title of "Doctor of Medicina" for the successful completion of his studies. On the diploma are the embossed stamp of the Pisa University, and the certifications and stamps of the mayor of Pisa and the Livorno Consulate of the Ottoman State.