Legal arrangements for the limitation of the number of pharmacies in Turkey and their consequences
The limitation and control of the drug trade, apothecaries and pharmacies, considering their direct influences on human health, has always been a major concern. In Turkey, pharmacists were initially regarded as class of tradesmen, and their numbers were limited by enforcement of an Ottoman regime of warrants (gedik). Pharmaceutics was accepted as an independent occupation under the legislation called 'The Administrative Regulations of Pharmaceutics in Ottoman Empire' (Nizamname-i Eczacıyan-ı Der Memalik-i Osmaniye) passed on 17th May 1852, and only those who had a diploma of pharmaceutics were entitled to serve. On 2nd February 1861, the limitations on setting up chemist shops (eczahane) were rescinded and 'gediks' deregulated under a new legislation called 'The Regulations on the Practice of Pharmaceutics in Urban Districts' (Beledî İspençiyarlık Sanatının İcrasına Dair Nizamname). Moreover, in 1916, pharmacies were categorized into three groups, private pharmacies, municipal pharmacies, and pharmacies of private hospitals by a law called 'The General Directive for Pharmacies' (Alelumum Eczahaneler Talimatnamesi). A governmental decree was issued on 1st July 1922, but could not be brought into operation because of the abolishment of the Ottoman rule on the 1st November 1922.
During the early years of the Turkish Republic the number of pharmacies was limited in accordance with the population of the region by 'The Pharmacies and Pharmacists Law no.964' of 1927. According to this law, which was intended to distribute the pharmacies evenly over the country, only one pharmacy could be opened in a town with a population of ten thousand residents. An additional law to the Pharmacies and Pharmacists Law No.5320 was passed on 7th February 1949, allowing those pharmacists serving in underprivileged regions for 5 years to move their pharmacies to any other locality. The Pharmacies and Pharmacists Law no.6197 of 1953 abolished all restrictions on setting up pharmacies.
Key words: Pharmacy, Legal regulations, Türkiye; Anahtar kelimeler: Eczane, Eczacılık Yasaları, Turkey.